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Biosphere Reserves in india: List of 18 Biosphere Reserves in India with States

Biosphere reserve

What is Biosphere Reserve?

A biosphere reserve is a protected area established to promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems while also allowing sustainable use of natural resources by local communities. The Biosphere Reserves are identified not only to protect the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also for the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Biosphere Reserves tries to balance economic and social development and maintenance of associated cultural values along with the preservation of nature. Biosphere reserves are designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as part of its Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program.

What is the Man and Biosphere Programme?

The UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme under the World Network of Biosphere Reserves was launched in 1971. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves of the MAB Programme fosters the harmonious integration of people and the nature of sustainable development through- Participatory dialogue, Knowledge sharing, Poverty reduction, Human well-being improvements, Respect for cultural values, Society’s ability to cope with change to improve human livelihoods, the MAB combines natural and social sciences, economics, and education. In conclusion, it is a main international tool to develop and implement sustainable development approaches in a wide array of contexts.

Objective of Biosphere Reserve

Due to enhancing population, urbanization, deforestation, and pollution, there is an increasing crisis in the existence of living organisms. Many types of animals and their species have also become extinct, for example, you can see some birds like sparrows, vultures, and other animals which are no longer visible around you. The existence of different types of plants and animals on the earth is important for ecological balance. Decreasing biodiversity is an indication of natural disasters and other harmful effects on nature. So, it is important to conserve biodiversity. To maintain the goal, the concept of the Biosphere Reserve came into action in the World. The main objective of biosphere reserves is to promote the conservation of biodiversity, support sustainable development, and facilitate research and monitoring of ecological systems. By combining conservation with sustainable development, biosphere reserves strive to create a balanced relationship between people and their environment.

Functions of a Biosphere Reserve

• Conservation function: To conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes. Along with the wildlife, the culture and customs of tribals are also protected

• Development function: To promote sustainable human and economic development. It seeks to strengthen the three pillars of sustainable development:
social, economic, and protection of the environment.

• Logistic support function: To provide support for research, monitoring, education, and information exchange related to local, national, and global issues of conservation and development.

Structure of Biosphere Reserve

Biosphere reserves typically consist of three interconnected zones: a core area, a buffer zone, and a transition zone. The core area is strictly protected and is usually home to rare or endangered species, while the buffer zone is a buffer area where limited human activity is allowed. The transition zone is the outermost area where sustainable development and human activities are encouraged. Let’s discuss them one by one in detail.

The Biosphere Reserve is mainly divided into three zones:

• Core zone
• Buffer zone
• Transition zone

1. Core Zones

This is the Central part of biosphere reserve areas. It is for the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species, and genetic variation. It is a fully restricted area for human activities but research work can be done without harassment of any kind.

2. Buffer Zones

Limited restriction compared to the Core area. Buffer zones are those areas that are situated between the core zone and the transition zone. In this area, Limited human activities like Education, Research, and Training are permitted with some conditions.

3. Transition Zones

Outer areas around the Biosphere Reserve are known as the Transition Zone. Also known as Manipulation Zone. Several human activities like Tourism, Human Settlements, Education, etc are allowed here.

List of Biosphere Reserves in India

Biosphere reserves are announced by the state or central governments by notification. The Governments can nominate them under UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme after its establishment as a biosphere reserve. There are 18 biosphere reserves in India.

[wptb id=3235]

Distribution of the Biosphere Reserves in the World:

• 157 sites in 24 countries in Asia and the Pacific
• 302 sites in 38 countries in Europe and North America
• 85 sites in 31 countries in Africa
• 33 sites in 12 countries in the Arab States
• 130 sites in 21 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

Map of the Biosphere Reserves in India

Biosphere reserve is a multipurpose protected area to conserve genetic diversity, promote research in ecology, provide facilities for education, awareness training, etc. So we also say that the Biosphere reserve is a living laboratory. Biosphere reserves not only protect animals and plants but also protect the communities and their lifestyle who have lived there.

Narendra Modi Quotes: 70 Powerful quotes of PM Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi Quotes

Narendra Modi Quotes:

Terrorism is most serious challenge to open & pluralistic societies.Combating it requires collective effort. We need to target not only the terrorists, but also their entire supporting ecosystem. Our strongest action should be reserved for those state actors who employ terrorism as an instrument of State Policy.

The world is seeing India with a ray of hope and our diaspora can play a crucial role in further spreading it. The Indian community does not settle abroad to enter into politics or take a seat in the global politics. Wherever they go, they think and act towards benefit of the society.

There’s so much happening with the youth looking at local or national problems and solving them with innovation and technology. This is what startup success means.

Youngsters from India are doing wonderful things both in India and internationally. I dream of Yuva Shakti that is filled with self-belief, has the power to think big, and is hardworking to realise that aspiration.

Be it the First World War or the Second World War, India never attacked other countries. We never attacked any country for conquering their territory. But our brave soldiers fought for others and sacrificed their lives in both the Wars. And, the world must recognise this.

India believes in taking everyone together. Nepal was rattled with an earthquake. We provided assistance to them. We did so, on the grounds of humanity. Be it Yemen or Maldives, we tried to provide assistance at our best. Humanity is our central inspiration.

India is a youthful country. A country with such a major percentage of youth has the capability to change not only its own but the fate of the entire world.

Entire world today is keen to engage with India. And, our diaspora can play a major role in furthering the country’s bond with the world. At the same time, it is also necessary for us to connect and strengthen our bond with the diaspora.

World’s keenness to engage with India has risen. In such times ‘fear of unknown’ can be an obstacle. Our diaspora can help overcome this.

We should not view our diaspora only in terms of ‘Sankhya’ but let us see them as ‘Shakti’. In doing so, we can solve our problem of Brain Drain by converting it into Brain Gain.

Our Divyang sisters and brothers want to lead life with pride, they want to do well. With Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan we are focusing on areas where we may not have devoted much attention before.

Whenever we come across Viklang person, our attention goes towards their disability but we do not notice the immense capabilities and strength they have to accomplish a task. And, that is why I urge everyone to use the word Divyang instead of Viklang.

Time for phrases like ‘Hota Hai-Chalta Hai’ is now a matter of past. India is growing rapidly and the world has high expectations from us. We cannot let this opportunity go.

Power, Water and Roads…Earlier only these were considered as basic requirements for the poor. But we have added more to it- Education and Health. By giving impetus to these five elements, we are not only creating employment opportunities but also securing their future. And, that is why the mantra of ‘Sabka Sath, Sabka Vikas’ is resonating across the country.

Give water to the farmers of this country and see the wonders they can do. Through the Pradhanmantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, we want to ensure that water reaches every village across the length and breadth of the country.

In 1857, the aadivasis of Dahod presented most challenging situations for the British in the region. As we mark the 70th freedom year, I bow down to the countless aadivasis and freedom fighters for their sacrifices.

Our aadivasi sisters and brothers have played a paramount role in the freedom struggle. For hundreds of years, people across villages of the country kept alive the flame of sacrifices for attaining independence. They left no stone unturned in helping India attain freedom.

In South Asia, India and most countries of the region are pursuing a peaceful path to economic prosperity. But, there is one country in India’s neighbourhood whose competitive advantage rests solely in producing and exporting terrorism. This export is reducing space for peace & increasing space for violence and, putting at risk peace & prosperity of all. The time has come for us to stop this Global Exporter of Terror. The time has come to Sanction this Instigator.

We are willing to take concrete steps to enhance cooperation in cyber security, de-radicalization and Counter Terrorism.

I dream of a young India that is not constrained by any limitations whatsoever. I want the youth of this country to lead a life filled with hope and opportunity.

Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life, think of it, dream of it, live on that idea, let the brain, muscles, nerve, every part of your body be full of that idea and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success.

In face of growing traditional and non-traditional challenges, politico-security cooperation is a key emerging pillar of our relationship. Rising export of terror, growing radicalization through ideology of hatred, and spread of extreme violence define the landscape of common security threats to our societies. The threat is local, regional and transnational at the same time. Our partnership with ASEAN seeks to craft a response that relies on coordination, cooperation and sharing of experiences at multiple levels.

In our country, only what is talked about is seen as reform. If it isn’t talked about, it isn’t seen as reform. It shows our ignorance. My mantra is reform to transform, and I say in my government – Reform, Perform and Transform.

Our engagement with ASEAN is not just about a solid base of shared civilizational heritage. It is also driven by our common strategic priorities of securing our societies and bringing peace, stability and prosperity to the region. ASEAN is central to India’s ‘Act East’ Policy. And, our ties are a source of balance and harmony in the region.

Earlier there was a kind of negative atmosphere and it left an enormous echo-effect. The country’s traders and industrialists had started looking out. There was a paralysis in government. When we came in power we had to face two successive droughts, water scarcity and, there was a slowdown in the global economy. So there were a series of challenges. But our intention was strong and policies were clear. There was decisiveness because there was no vested interest. The result of this was that positivity spread very quickly.

As far as my duties and responsibilities are concerned, I have to fulfill them to the best of my abilities. If I have to take strong decisions for the country’s sake, then I will have to make those decisions. If I have to work hard for that then I will have to. If I have to bend I’ll bend. If I have to walk fast then I’ll walk fast. But these are not facets of my character; these are part of my responsibilities.

The country has 80 crore youth. They are below 35 years of age. If youth have the skill, they can change the destiny of this country. And we are laying stress on this.

Peace, unity and harmony are useful in family, life, society and for the nation. And to all those who believe in Vasudhaive Kutumbakam, the whole world is one.

Today, we have the highest amount of foreign direct investment after Independence. The entire world says that at more than 7% growth, we are the fastest growing economy. Whether it is the World Bank, IMF, credit agencies, even UN agencie_ they all say India is growing rapidly.

The poisons of casteism and communal vote banks have caused enough damage to our country. The biggest obstacle to strengthening our democracy is vote bank politics. There was no atmosphere of vote bank politics in last general elections. There was the atmosphere of development politics.

The poisons of casteism and communal vote banks have caused enough damage to our country. The biggest obstacle to strengthening our democracy is vote bank politics. There was no atmosphere of vote bank politics in last general elections. There was the atmosphere of development politics.

Politics can be done by keeping the poor poor. But freedom from poverty can only come by empowerment. We are empowering the poor to end poverty. When the poor are empowered, they become competent to alleviate poverty.

Unity is not important for economic progress alone. Peace, unity and harmony are useful in family, life, society and for the nation. And to all those who believe in Vasudhaive Kutumbakam, the whole world is one.

Direct benefit transfer is a big reform. Earlier who knew where MNREGA money was going? Now it is sent by DBT. So are gas subsidy payments and student scholarships. For me all these are reforms in governance, transparency.

Usually it is one or two things that are talked about, but today growth has being talked about in all sectors. Electricity production has gone up and so has demand. Infrastructure work is also growing rapidly and that happens when there is demand in the economy. From all this it looks like we have moved ahead to better days.

If you will play, you will shine. If you don’t play, you will never shine. And that’s why sports is important for overall development of an individual.

GST is the biggest tax reform since the independence of India. This reform will bring a big change in the country. It will simplify tax payments so much that anyone who wants to contribute to the country will come forward. This will not only benefit the common man, the revenues will help develop the nation. This will end the situation of mistrusts between the states. GST will enhance transparency and strengthen the federal structure.

Sports is a necessity of life. Let everyone play and shine.

In life one should show sportsman spirit if he/she tastes defeat and never get bogged down. More than winning, sports helps you learn to deal with defeats. Sports teach you not to lose heart after defeats. Sports helps you become a fighter. The one who loses is the one who plays. And the one blooms is also the one who plays.

Sports for me is: S for Skill, P for Perseverance, O for Optimism, R for Resilience, T for Tenacity, S for Stamina.

Our Jawans have the full freedom to do as they deem appropriate. They have been answering and will continue to answer in an appropriate language. We are very proud of our Jawans for their courage.

My focus is on governance. Country has been at greatest loss because governments were run only for elections. Governments must not run only for elections. The government should be a bona fide attempt of meeting the demands and expectations of the common people.

Parliament is for discussion. Parliament is to show dissent. Parliament is to give an argument for one’s opposition, to present an argument when they support. To uphold this basic spirit of Parliament is the responsibility of every person who values democracy. It is the responsibility of those present in the Parliament and those outside. It is the responsibility of those in power and that not in power. This is a matter that must be followed in letter and spirit.

We no longer believe in a bipolar world. Now the entire world is more interdependent and inter connected. Earlier, the foreign policy was possible between governments, but today it is not possible just between governments. Government relations are important but increasing people to people contact is equally important. There’s been a shift in paradigm.

A strong India-U.S. partnership can anchor peace, prosperity and stability from Asia to Africa and from Indian Ocean to the Pacific. It can also help ensure security of the sea lanes of commerce and freedom of navigation on seas.

My development parameter is very simple. It is about how the poorest of the poor can benefit from development. The poor is the central focus of my economic agenda. The poor should be strengthened in such a way that they get the willingness to defeat poverty.

On the issue of terrorism, the world never believed India’s views on terrorism. They would dismiss it by saying that it’s your law and order problem. Today the world has to accept what India has been saying about terrorism. India’s dialogue on terrorism, the losses India has suffered due to terrorism, the losses suffered by humanity; the world is now acknowledging that. So I believe we have to take this process forward.

As the U.S. businesses search for new areas of economic growth, markets for their goods, a pool of skilled resources, and global locations to produce and manufacture, India could be their ideal partner. India’s strong economy, and growth rate of 7.6% per annum, is creating new opportunities for our mutual prosperity.

My to-do list is long and ambitious. It includes a vibrant rural economy with robust farm sector; a roof over each head and electricity to all households; to skill millions of our youth; build 100 smart cities; have a broad band for a billion, and connect our villages to the digital world; and create a twenty-first century rail, road and port infrastructure. These are not just aspirations; they are goals to be reached in a finite time-frame with a light carbon foot print, with greater emphasis on renewables.

India is undergoing a profound social and economic change. A billion of its citizens are already politically empowered. My dream is to economically empower them through many social and economic transformations.

Modern India is in its 70th year. For my government, the Constitution is its real holy book. And, in that holy book, freedom of faith, speech and franchise, and equality of all citizens, regardless of background, are enshrined as fundamental rights. 800 million of my countrymen may exercise the freedom of franchise once every five years. But, all the 1.25 billion of our citizens have freedom from fear, a freedom they exercise every moment of their lives.

Our nations (India and USA) may have been shaped by differing histories, cultures, and faiths. Yet, our belief in democracy for our nations and liberty for our countrymen is common. The idea that all citizens are created equal is a central pillar of the American constitution. Our founding fathers too shared the same belief and sought individual liberty for every citizen of India.

Our “Make in India” initiative is not intended for only manufacturing for the domestic market or import substitution. It is as much about making world-class products and services for the whole globe.

We have brought two hundred million people into the banking system through the Jan Dhan Yojana. This is more than the population of most countries in the world. Now, these millions are part of our banking system, and words like ‘interest rate’ have a meaning for them.

We have put most sectors on automatic approval and opened up sectors like defence and railways to foreign investment. The long pending insurance law reform was successfully passed. Several insurance companies, including American companies, have already enhanced their investment in the insurance sector. We have taken major steps to increase the ‘Ease of Doing Business’ and have already begun climbing steeply in the global rankings.

Since we took office, inflation, the fiscal deficit and the balance of payments current account deficit have all fallen. GDP growth, foreign exchange reserves, stock market valuations, and investor confidence have all increased. This success is the result of a series of well thought out policies.

My aim is to reform to transform. For me, reforms are those policies that transform the lives of ordinary citizens. In the last two years, we have taken a comprehensive package of reforms which go beyond more economic reforms.

A very unique feature of the Indo-American relationship is the critical role of the Indian-American community in the US economy. It is rare that emigrants from one nation, who become immigrants in another, enjoy such high respect and repute in both countries. Indian-Americans are a powerful cementing force in our growing economic and cultural ties.

India is poised to contribute as a new engine of global growth. A larger Indian economy has multiple benefits for the world. India presents a large and growing market. But India is much more than a market. India is a reliable partner; a source of high quality scientific, engineering and managerial talent.

India is undergoing profound transformations. We are today the fastest growing economy in the world. We want the Indian economy to be driven by smart and sustainable cities, robust farm sector, vibrant manufacturing and dynamic service sector. And, its engines to run on world class network of rails, roads, airports and digital connectivity.

The economic links between India and Switzerland countries are strong and vibrant. Many Swiss companies are household names in India. Ties of collaboration in trade, investment, science and technology and skill development benefit both our societies.

India and Switzerland have both been the voices of peace, understanding and humanitarian values in the world.

Your friendship is our honour; your dreams are our duty. India’s capacity may be limited, but our commitment is without limits. Our resources may be modest, but our will is boundless.

Afghanistan’s success is a deeply held hope and desire of every Indian. It comes from the love and admiration for Afghans in our hearts. We want to see your democracy strike deep roots; your people unite; and your economy prosper.

The blood, sweat and tears of our people are mixed into this earth and have formed between us an eternal bond, written into the soil of this land..Bonds that remind us of ancient links between this region and India.

Afghan-India Friendship dam has not been built by bricks and mortar, but by the faith of our friendship and the valour of Afghans and Indians.

Today, we are not just launching a project that will irrigate land and light up homes. We are reviving a region, restoring hope, renewing life and redefining Afghanistan’s future. The dam is a generator not just of electricity but also of optimism and belief in the future of Afghanistan.

GST is the biggest tax reform since the independence of India. This reform will bring a big change in the country. It will simplify tax payments so much that anyone who wants to contribute to the country will come forward. This will not only benefit the common man, the revenues will help develop the nation. This will end the situation of mistrusts between the states. GST will enhance transparency and strengthen the federal structure.

In order to fulfil the aspirations of masses, we have to sharpen the tool called the government machinery: we have to make it keen, more dynamic, and it is in this direction that we are working

UPSC IAS: How to score good marks in General Studies 2023-24

Upsc ias

Scoring good marks in upsc ias general studies (GS) require a combination of knowledge, skill and strategies. Candidates of the Civil Services Examination have to go through one optional subject and four general studies papers, all having equal weightage of marks. But then too, candidates have commonly expressed unsatisfactory tone over preparation and results in General Studies papers, even toppers. Even sometimes, toppers cannot score up to their expectations in General Studies. Many reasons can be and are given for this generally accepted problem:

Uncertain Syllabus of the General Studies papers is one of the reason ‘Why a strong grasp on and full command cannot be acquired over it. No candidate, or even classes of high repute can draw a boundary for General Studies, not even a lose boundary can be uttered confidently. So, to understand these two papers properly and acquire good command, at least, to be relieved of the tension, we must have a perfect strategy to prepare G.S. very methodically. For that let’s go through some quite inevitable aspects that we must know and tackle.

Nature of General Studies

As declared earlier, it is quite uncertain and widely unspecified subject matter. Yet UPSC declares it to be acknowledged by every good educated person without having studied the topics specifically. But going through the papers and questions, it comes in mind that even after studying specially in a branch, one cannot answer perfectly some questions. Thus, it is really deep understanding of general topics that is required. For example, Government’s policies, bilateral agreements, science and technology, economical issues, etc.

Wide Coverage

The syllabus of upsc ias is undefined. Papers cover a wide area of knowledge and information. It is not only topics from current or national and international issues that are widely scattered, but also in science and technology, economy and geographical spheres, questions cross the limits of tradition. So, a candidate has to be in touch of each and every topics happening around us, having their impact on society, nature, or the world. Candidates can read newspapers, magazines, online blogs and other reliable sources to keep their notes updated on the latest news and trends in these fields.

Deep Understanding

It is not just learning a topic and memorising some facts that pays but a candidate is required to command deep understanding of the incident or phenomena. He should be capable of presenting his views about its impacts.

Active Involvement

A candidate must develop a habit of actively taking interest in important incidents and should read newspapers and magazines for current related topics. He should also be able to think over definitions and explanations of conventional studies, cultivating the habit of reading between the lines.

Command over Every Topic

In General Studies, a candidate cannot opt any topic as an alternative for another one. A candidate must develop a strong hold and command over every topic of papers i.e. science and technology, statistics, economics, political issues, social issues, geography, current affairs, sports, international relations, institutions, organisations and so on.

Not Only Books

Only books reading, though many, cannot give a good result. So for the General Studies is concerned, a candidate has to go through newspapers, magazines, and sometimes active discussions or debates also, for at least, over view based topics.


Yes, it is perfectly uncertain, unspecified and therefore unlimited in nature. Its sphere never ends with a boundary. It is like a horizon which shifts for and far as much we approach towards it. So it is also advised to every candidate to be selective in reading and a proper time table must be maintained strictly to follow the schedule. He must decide what he is required to read by suggestions of experienced faculties or at least seniors, friends, or some magazines.

Selective and Intensive

The study of General Studies Mains requires a perfect approach that is selective and intensive. It is quite different from the Preliminary exam. And so some topics, as I mentioned earlier, should be selected for intensive and deep study.

A list of books on every topic, required to be studied, can be prepared and then a time for each of them should be devoted. One can decide number and types of books and extent of time that one can a lot to each according to weightage of the topic and one’s command over it. For instance, a candidate with Political Science as first or second optional would hardly require to a lot much time for the portion of Indian Polity in General Studies. So, this factor varies from candidate to candidate and from stage to stage of preparation.

Moreover, a candidate can decide by the nature of a topic that how much weightage can be given to a topic by considering its importance. We can consider the following points while choosing the self-decided syllabus for the General Studies :

• Previous Years’ Papers can be thoroughly studied to understand what topics are frequently emphasised, especially traditional topics like history, polity, economy, geography, statistics etc.

• Current news can guide you to select portions of importance. For example, the topic of bilateral relations can be asked if any agreement or visit of higher authority has taken place during recent period.

• Newly declared policies and its importance should be prepared as it can be expected in papers.

• Any International Conference, organisation or summit in news should be prepared thoroughly.

These are only a few criteria for selection of topics of importance from amongst the unlimited reservoir of issues and incidents. One more important suggestion, on this topic of selective and intensive study, is that preparation should be based on understanding and information apart from getting knowledge but never should be just a bulk of datas, figures and numbers.

Answer Writing

Its a quite necessary skill for mains examination. No word should be missed and no extra word can be spaced between. Besides shortage of time, words limit is a crucial factor of these papers. Proper word at proper place’ is applied in this exam. If a candidate, reading a lot and knowing a lot, cannot score well, What is justification? No justification, just one fault appears on the surface that is lack of answer writing skill. It can be developed. It can be commanded over impressively.

What a candidate knows is expressed by words he writes in his answers. He cannot enjoy a smooth flow of ink nor can be create bumpers in logical flow of answer. He has to maintain flow of language on the road. He is directed by the question and that too without bumps, covering the whole distance. He is, in simple words, required to maintain the quality of his answers with the following characteristics:

• Simplicity of language.
• Logical flow of language.
• Maintaining word limit.
• Clarity of thoughts.
• Information and data.
• Proper structure of answers.
• Precise and brief writing.
• Appropriate diagrams, graphs or figures can be drawn.

Time Management

Time Management is required at two stages:

  1. During Preparation
  2. In the Examination Hall.

1. During Preparation

While preparing for the mains, especially after result of Preliminary, candidate rests with a little time, hardly three months at hand. In this short span of time, he requires to thoroughly prepare his both optionals and General Studies. Apart from these Six papers, a candidate has to prepare for Essay and two language papers, though not much emphasised by candidates. In addition to all these, the must required preparation of acquiring writing skill and practice is also there. Among these needs, one has to manage time for each optional, essay and the G.S.

Some tips can be given on this points:

• Divide total time for all these six papers, sparing an evening a week for essay.

• For each paper, you can again divide the time allocated to it, even for topics separately.

• Confirm a little flexibility in your time division.

• Ensure that you give enough weightage to every topic, providing more time and concern for important one.

• Be confirm that you allocate time for each, based upon two strategies;

  1. your command, knowledge and background.
  2. previous years questions and marks weightage.

• Do not indulge, in any topic for expert knowledge and just be sure that you are gaining enough knowledge required for General Studies. Even your personal interest should not lead you to this mistake.

2. Time Management in Exam Hall

• Do not read the whole paper in starting, because all questions are compulsory in General Studies.

• Among questions with options, go through each (a), (b), (c) …, where option is available.

• Think which question you can attempt well.

• After deciding the question to be attempted, jolt down relevant points according to nature of the question. Then start to write answers. No extra words or comments, only straight forward answer on proper direction will surely shorten your time.

• The condition is that before starting to write an answer one must had points and structure of the answers in one’s mind.

• Do not waste time in noticing behaviour and impression of others about the papers though this is not to say to a candidate of Civil Services, yet it is necessary.

• Proper managed preparation can give you sweet fruits even in General Studies and allowing you enough time for your optionals also. Just remember one thing, no one can be perfect in general studies, learn to be satisfied with your preparation, yes, improvement must always be yearned for.

Note Making

Many toppers advise to prepare notes and many to follow strategy of underlining important parts. Some combine both. What is the best way for main preparation of General Studies? Should a candidate spare time for notes making? Answer is again amalgamation of both where to use notes and where underline is an important question.

You can follow the stages given below:

• Stage 1 : To be precise, you can underline your references with a pencil and different colours of pens and highlighters.

• Stage 2 : You can underline with pencil, that portion of a book or magazine which you generally find important, as a whole.

• Stage 3 : Now you can, from among these portions underline that sentences which can provide you central idea of the topic with one colour pen, may it be blue.

• Stage 4 : Then again, if you find some words and phrases, numbers, figures and datas of vital importance, underline that part with another colour of pen, as more important for revision and memorising. May it be black or green.

• Stage 5 : Then at last and inevitable task, you can round up or underline or box-up only a few words for the portion which can be used as the stimulation to your grasp of that topic. For example, in History of Modern India, while learning the topic of “Gandhi in Indian National Movement”. You can just, for a few, use this last technique and remark words like, ‘Champaran’, ‘Dandi’, ‘Civil Disobedience’, ‘Non-Cooperation’, ‘Swadeshi’, ‘Round-table’, ‘Satyagraha’, ‘Ahimsa’ and ‘fast’. It is sure that while reading these words only, you can surely recall the whole topic. Am I right? So, follow these techniques for underlining?

For making notes:

• It must be topic and sub-topic wise,

• It must include only relevant and most important points in brief language.

• Grammar and full sentences are not required to be taken care of.

• It must be handy in size and shape.

• It must be with clean and legible hand-writing.

• It must be attractively drafted and designed.

• It should not be with scattered points but with well arranged topics, indexed based on importance or incidents.

• Even in notes, most important words can be rounded up or highlighted, as in books and references.

• No preface, conclusion, views etc. on a topic, but only relevant explanation in point based language and datas should be there.

• Notes should be prepared subject-wise and if possible topic wise.

• Head points and titles should be given in notes.

• Different colour pens and signs can be used to indicate importance, weightage and probability to be asked in papers for different topics.

Once again, notes must not be like a manuscript of original texts, it must be in your own words and if possible, language and style too. It must be brief, summarily prepared and portable that can be revised even in a single day before the papers.

Understanding Nature of Topics

When involved in preparation, each topic should be evaluated in contexts of its probability of being asked in examination, its probable weightage and importance.

• How much influence does it create upon the society, politics or nature, is to be taken into account.

• Whether the topic has relevant facts and figures which are important from the examination’s point of view.

• If the topic is view based, different types of views, for and against must be acquired with by candidate.

• One cannot be biased to one side of it, one must learn to be natural while understanding the topic, only then candidate can balance answer in examination hall.

Some topics can basked in context of its contribution on particular or various fields, some can be for explaining implication and some for discussion. While learning a topic, according to its nature, a candidate must evaluate its purpose and perspectives. It can be directed to discussion, justification, examination, elucidation, arguments and comments, all or any of these possible manners. In another way, representing and understanding the same aspects, from the angle of marks and words should also be taken into account. Topics possible to be asked in two marks only, ten or thirty marks etc., can be decided or at least expected by candidates and then preparation can be directed to that track.

Model and Practice

Various question papers, as models and practices should be gone through for the exam purpose. The more one practises papers, the more marks be scores; is hitherto noticed fact. We need to be careful while choosing models which are of good standard and level. Solving such papers can boost a candidate’s confidence and can make him aware of some expected topics that can be asked in papers. It also helps in tackling the problems of time management, exam fear and so on. Therefore, it is always advisable for every candidate to go through various questions and topics by means of model papers and practice sets.

Reading Material

Having going through all these aspects of strategy, now a candidate, at last, requires to know and decide what material he can use. For different topics of General Studies, a candidate has to go through various references, guides, magazines and newspapers. One must decide carefully what books can be read for what topics. For this, friends, seniors, faculties or toppers (if not personally than through interviews in magazines) can be taken help of. Classes materials if found reliable can be used. Guides from various publications can also help understanding very easily. Dictionaries and Atlas are must for proper understanding of every topics, points and phenomena, dictionaries and Atlas are must to be used. Otherwise ambiguities of meaning may be created in candidate’s mind. No boasting of knowledge or vocabulary should come in a way. Neither a candidate should feel boring in Atlas for map reading.

Interpreting “Words” Given in the Questions

Candidate should answer the Question in accordance with the terms specified in the question. Some of those terms are mentioned here.

• Elucidate : It means to throw light on or explain. A statement is to be made intelligible by providing relevant facts and figures. You are not going to differ in such questions but just follow the track it provides to you, just giving explanations, if required with examples, to elucidate i.e. convince the statement.

• Explain : It is almost like same as Elucidate. Minor difference that appears in answer writing is that with definition and necessary details, one can just be within the area of statement while explaining it.

• Comment : Requires personal views of a candidate. Remember “to comment” is not “to argue”. It is necessary here to be balanced on each aspects, for and against, including every topic of the statement. Though a candidate can conclude either for or against but not necessarily to any one side specifically. Illustrations, incidents, datas, facts can be used to comment your view.

• Examine : This question compulsorily requires result of examination. One cannot be at middle point or remain indecisive to be neutral. The statement requires a close inspection to bring out facts throwing light on various merits and demerits and concluding on any one side.

• Critically : Here too, one must give judgement, most important here. One needs not to justify any fact or point but to be critical to them so that no side- for or against- seems to be favoured. As a critic does not be either for or against but for at some aspects and against at others.

• Discuss : It gives you a chance to narrate various aspects and details of the statement. It is comparatively easy to discuss as you are neither required to explain nor to examine. Just providing necessary detail about various aspects of the question will suffice the answer.

• Analyse : Analysis is something like scientific technique. One by one each aspects of the statement are taken into consideration. While dealing with one aspect, examine it, discuss it and comment upon it and then conclude separately for that aspect without having relevance to others. But remember each aspects, differently analysed must be coordinated and conclusion should be formed as a whole, of the whole analysis.

• illustrate : To give example to explain the topic in the statement, to make it clear. Here too, relevant data, quotations and facts can help to point out. But it must be remembered that you are not going to write an opposite to the statement. One needs to follow the direction of the statement and to explain it in that way.

• Simplify : To simplify means to made simple the statement. Give definition, meaning, explanation, details, examples and make the statement easy to grasp.

• Elaborate : It requires to add related details to make it full of meaning. Without necessary details some statements do not bear meaning. You are to provide its back ground, basis and then related detail to clear the whole picture in your words.

• Argue : To argue is to give for and against arguments on different aspects and effects of the statement. Remember, both sides must be covered. Balanced argument is advisable but if the topic is very positive or very negative, that side can be emphasised.

• Review : To review is to have a look on the historical facts of the statement. It is an expertise inspection of any topic. What outcomes and results you get, produce there.

• Justify : A statement regarding any result, decision or fact is given. Candidate has to justify it by explaining its benefits or merits and expressing its effect on minimising the adverse side. To prove propaganda in the statement logically and step by step is the expectation.

What is Noun? Types and Rules of Nouns with Examples


What is a Noun?

A Noun is a word that names something, such as a person, place, thing, or idea. In a sentence, nouns can play the role of subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, object complement, appositive, or adjective.

Here are some examples:
person: man, woman, teacher, ram.
place: home, office, town, countryside, America.
thing: table, car, apple, money, fan,love, dog, cat.

Types of Noun:

  1. Proper Noun
  2. Common Noun
  3. Collective Noun
  4. Material Noun
  5. Abstract Noun

1. Proper Nouns: Nouns that are used to name a person, place or thing specifically are called a proper noun. Proper nouns always begin with a capital letter.
E.g- My name is Rose. (Name of a particular person)
This is my dog, Bruno. (Name of a specific pet animal owned by someone)
David came back from Minsk. (Name of a specific place)

2. Common Noun: Common nouns are those nouns that refer to a generic item, group or place.
E.g- I bought a pen yesterday. (Common object)
I am going to school. (Common place).

3. Collective Noun: A collective noun is a naming word that is used to denote a group of objects, animals or people.
E.g- The jury is deciding the matter(Jury is collective Noun)
The committee meets every week.(Committee represents a group)

4. Material Noun: Material Noun is the substance, material, or thing which can be perceived by the senses.
E.g- My teacher sometimes forgets her keys in the classroom.(key is a thingso it’s noun).
The farmers produce cotton once a year.(cotton is Material Noun).
The doctor placed a silver tooth in his mouth.(Silver is Material Noun)

5. Abstract Noun: Any entity that cannot be perceived by the five senses of the human body are called an abstract noun.
E.g- Love is a strong emotion.(We can feel love but we can’t touch it so it’s a abstract Noun)
Honesty is the best policy.(Honesty is abstract Noun).

Further Noun are categorised in two parts:

Countable Noun
Non-Countable Noun

Countable nouns are those nouns that can be counted or measured.
E.g- Jerry brought five packets of lays for the trip. (specific number – five).
Dad asked me to buy a dozen eggs. (specific – dozen means twelve).

Uncountable nouns are those nouns that cannot be counted.
E.g- I have a lot of homework to do. (Not specific).
I have a cup of tea. (Cannot count).
We are facing terrible weather today. (Cannot count).

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Rule 1

Some Nouns are always in their plural form and we can’t remove the ‘s’ that comes in end. These Noun always take plural verb. These are: Scissors, tongs, pliers, pincers, bellows, trousers, pants, pajamas,
shorts, gallows, fangs, spectacles, goggles, binoculars, eyeglasses, Alms, amends, archives, arrears, auspices, congratulations, embers, fireworks, lodgings, outskirts, particulars, proceeds, regards, riches, remains, savings, shambles, surroundings, tidings, troops, tactics, thanks, valuables, wages, belongings etc.

E.g- (a) Where are my trousers?
(b) Where are the spectacles?
(c) The proceeds were deposited in the bank.
(d) All his assets were seized.
(e) Alms are given to the beggars.

Rule 2

Some Nouns appear plural but they are singular in meaning. They always take singular verb with them.These are: News, Innings, Politics, Summons, Physics, Economics, Ethics, Mathematics, Mumps, Measles, Rickets,Shingles, Billiards, Athletics etc

E.g- (a) No news is good news.
(b) Politics is a dirty game.
(c) Physics is an interesting subject.

Rule 3

The meaning of some nouns is singular but they are used as plural nouns and they are also taken as plural verbs always.These are: cavalry, infantry, poultry, peasantry, cattle, children, gentry, police, people, etc.

E.g- (a) The police are doing good job.
(b) Cattle are grazing in field.

Rule 4

Some nouns are only in their singular form these are uncomfortable nouns and they can’t use articles a/an with them. These are:
Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information, Hair, Business, Mischief, Bread, Stationery, Crockery, Luggage, Baggage, Postage, Knowledge, Wastage, Jewellery, Breakage, Equipment,Work, Evidence etc.

E.g- (a) The scenery of Kashmir is very charming.
(b) I have no information about her residence.
(c) The mischief committed by him is unpardonable.
(d) His hair is black.

Rule 5

Hyphenated noun are not used in plural form.

E.g- (a) He gave me two hundred-rupee notes.
(b) He stays in five- star hotel.

Rule 6

Some nouns indicate length, measure, money, weight, or number but when they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.

E.g (a) It is a four–year degree course.
(b) I have two hundred rupees only.

Rule 7

Some noun are in both singular or plural form i.e deer,sheep, series ,
species, fish, crew, team, jury, aircraft, counsel etc.

E.g (a) Our team is the best.
(b) Our team are trying their new uniform.
(c) There are two fish in the pond.

Rule 8

If There is preposition after noun then the noun is repeated and it is in singular form.

E.g (a) Town after town was devastated.
(b) Row upon row of marble looks beautiful.
(c) He enquired from door to door.
(d) Ship after ship is arriving.


  1. A curriculum of studies.
  2. A flight of steps, stairs.
  3. A fleet of ships or motorcars.
  4. A flock of geese, sheep and birds.
  5. A gang of robbers, labourers.
  6. A garland/bunch/bouquet of flowers.
  7. A band of musicians.
  8. A board of directors, etc.
  9. A bevy of girls, women, officers etc.
  10. A bunch of grapes, keys, etc.
  11. A bundle of sticks and hay.
  12. A caravan of Merchants, pilgrims,
  13. A chain/range of mountains or hills.
  14. A choir of singers.
  15. A class of students.
  16. A retinue of servants/ attendants.
  17. A clump/grove of trees.
  18. A code of laws.
  19. A cluster / constellation/ galaxy of stars.
  20. A company/regiment/army of soldiers.
  21. A convoy of ships, cars etc.moving
    under an escort.
  22. A course or series of lectures.
  23. A crew of sailors.
  24. A crowd/mob of people.
  25. A series of events.

How to clear Banking Exam in 3 months without coaching


Banking is a field in which coaching is not at all required because the things which are asked in the exam are of basic nature and can be done by studying proper basics and practicing properly. Every year, a large number of candidates apply for banking posts in public sector banks and regional rural banks in India. The demand for a career in the banking sector is evident among youths, given the high number of yearly applications received for Clerk, SO, and Bank PO Jobs. While such bank exams are getting tougher every year, candidates are also looking for the best exam preparation strategy to crack it in the 1st attempt. It’s important you know how to start preparing for bank exams once the application is out to beat the high competition in a golden Tips to crack any Bank Exams easily:

  1. Learn Table: Learn tables upto 25, squares upto 30, cubes of numbers upto 15 to save your calculation time.
  2. Reading: Read anything you are interested in or Read Editorials from famous newspapers like (the Hindu, business line, etc). Learn new words from editorials and also synonyms & antonyms of the same words side by side.
  3. Online: Get help from YouTube. There are a lot of teachers available on every subject over the internet. Try to find the best shortcut to solve a problem. Don’t forget to practice the shortcut while preparing.
  4. Practice: Practice a topic a day. Start from the basics to hard ones gradually, so that you would not get any doubts later. Start from easy questions.
  5. Time table: Take up a free mock test and evaluate your topic wise and section wise score. Try to make a timetable for yourself to clear sectional cut-off according to the exam pattern.
  6. Make sure that your concepts are clear: It is important to have clarity of the concepts before starting any topic/chapter. Make sure you clear all the basic concepts to have a good hold on the important topics required to learn.
  7. Mock tests are a must thing: Once you are done with your revision part, it is necessary to examine what you have learned so far. Take a mock test to analyze your revision, work on your weak parts and improvise on them. This will reduce the chances of making mistakes during the exam.
  8. Managing the Time: There are sectional time limits, therefore, candidates need to manage their time in the exam. Within the given time, candidates need to answer all questions with accuracy.
  9. Work on Speed and Accuracy: Bank exams are conducted online. While preparing for the exam, candidates must focus on speed and accuracy. Candidates can develop their speed and accuracy by solving mock tests.
  10. Identifying and Working on Weak Areas: By going through the exam syllabus and exam pattern, candidates will be able to know their strengths and weakness. Candidates can towards improving the weak areas.

Subject wise Tips to clear Exam:

English Language

English is the most scoring section as it is asked in both the written and descriptive exams and you will also need to be goodin it. Topics to be covered: Reading Comprehension, Cloze test, Sentence improvement, Phrase replacement, Sentence Completion, Grammar (Fill in the blanks, Finding Error, Phrase Replacement), Para jumbles, Vocabulary (Fill in the blanks, Error Spotting).

Here are the some tips to Score good in English

• Read books and newspaper on a daily basis.
• Have a basic conversation with people in English language to speed up your English thinking process.
• Watching English series or movies to assist your grammar and vocabulary understanding.

Quantative Aptitude

Quantitative Aptitude section, if prepared efficiently can fetch you good marks in any exam. Topics to be covered in Quantitative Aptitude Section: Simplification, Percentage, Ratio & Proportion, Mixtures & Allegation, Profit & loss, Average, Number Series, Speed-Time & Distance, Time & Work, Number System, Data Sufficiency, Mensuration, Data Interpretation, Simple Interest & Compound Interest, Problems on Ages, Quadratic Equation, Linear Equation, Permutation & Combination, Probability.

Here are the some tips to Score good in Quantative Aptitude:

• Follow school level syllabus of elementary Mathematics, this will help you in covering most of the topics.
• Memorise the important formulas, tables and learn square upto atleast 30 & Cube upto 15.
• Mark your strong and weak topics. Practice your weak topics more.
• Firstly learn a Topic from YouTube and than practice it.
• Solve the practice test papers topic wise.

Reasoning Ability

Reasoning section is all about how well you practice. This section does not involve any formulas or shortcut tricks but tests your ability to think and perceive things. Topics to be covered: Syllogism, Inequalities, Mathematical Inequality, Order & Ranking, Seating Arrangement (Circular, Rectangular, North-South facing, Floor wise etc), Coding & Decoding, Direction & Distance, Blood Relation, Machine Input and Output, Arrangement & Pattern, Double line up, Scheduling, Analogy, Data sufficiency, Classification, Series, Verbal Reasoning.

Here are the some tips to Score good in Reasoning Ability:

• Start off your preparation with the important topics and then go on to topics that can score you well.
• Spend at least 2 hours every day on the practice of different topics of this section.
• Make note of important points and steps to solve questions.
• Solve Atleast 5-10 puzzles on daily basis.
• Revise regularly.

General Awareness
Prepare the important current affairs of the last 4-5 months properly. For this, you can read current affairs daily, weekly or monthly according to your study plan. Topics to be covered: Banking & Financial Awareness, Current Affairs (Last 4-5 Months), Static General Knowledge, Economy (Indian Economy, Financial organization, Budget, Railway budget, Economic survey, GDP Growth Rate, GST, Business), questions on Books & authors, Currencies, Important Places, Awards, Headquarters, Prime Ministers Schemes, Important Days.

Here are the some tips to Score good in General Awareness:

• Allot one hour every day to study for the general awareness section.
• Take GK quizzes to test your general knowledge.
• Read newspapers and magazines often to stay updated on current events and issues.
• Revision is the key.

IBPS Clerk 2023 Exam Syllabus & Pattern: Check all details

Ibps clerk

IBPS Clerk exam is conducted by  IBPS (Institute of Banking Personnel Selection) every year for the recruitment of clerical posts in 11 public sector banks all over the country. IBPS Clerk Syllabus is essential for aspirants seeking careers in the Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) as Clerks. It is exceedingly important for the applicants to be conversant with the clerk syllabus before kick-starting their preparations. To outrank the competitors, it is essential to check the topics carrying the maximum weightage and devise a strategy accordingly. The IBPS Clerk 2023 syllabus is divided into two sections, Prelims and Mains. The candidates can refer to the IBPS Clerk Syllabus to begin their preparation.

IBPS Clerk exam dates 2023 have been announced. IBPS Clerk prelims exam will be conducted on August 26, 27 and September 2, 2023. The mains exam will be conducted on October 7, 2023. The dates related to the release of application form, admit card, result, etc. will be announced along with the notification. IBPS Clerk Prelims Syllabus consists of English Language, Reasoning Ability, and Numerical Ability. The Prelims exam accounts for 100 questions to be solved in 60 minutes.


English Language– Cloze Test, Reading Comprehension, Spotting Errors, Sentence Improvement, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Fill in the Blanks, Para/Sentence Completion.

Quantative Aptitude– Number Series, Data Interpretation, Simplification/ Approximation, Quadratic Equation, Data Sufficiency, Mensuration, Average, Profit and Loss, Ratio and Proportion, Work, Time, and Energy, Time and Distance, Probability, Relations, Simple and Compound Interest, Permutation and Combination.

Reasoning Ability– Seating Arrangements, Puzzles, Inequalities, Syllogism, Input-Output, Data Sufficiency, Blood Relations, Order and Ranking, Alphanumeric Series, Distance and Direction, Verbal Reasoning.


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The Mains Examination of IBPS Clerk exam will constitute 4 sections: Reasoning & Computer Awareness, General English, General/Financial Awareness, and Quantitative Aptitude. The complete syllabus is discussed below:

Reasoning Ability– Sitting Arrangements, Tabulation, Logical Reasoning, Syllogism, Input-Output, Coding-Decoding, Alphanumeric Series, Blood Relations, Ranking, Data Sufficiency, Distance & Direction, Coded Inequalities, and Verbal Reasoning.

Data Analysis & interpretation– Simplification & Approximation, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency, Number Series, Ratio & Proportion, Quadratic Equations, Averages, Boats & Streams, Simple Interest & Compound Interest, Percentage, Profit & Loss, Mixtures & Alligation, Permutation & Combination, Time & Distance, Probability, Partnership, Pipes & Cistern.

English Language– Reading Comprehension, Cloze Test, Double Fillers, Error Spotting, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Paragraph Completion, Para Summary, Sentence Connector, and Vocabulary.

General Awareness– This section compiles three different sub-sections which are current affairs, banking & financial affairs, and static awareness. It includes topics such as important bank news, economic affairs, national and international news, recent state affairs, agreements, visits, awards and honors, summits & conferences, and obituaries.


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Final Score Calculation for IBPS Clerk Exam:

The final score for the IBPS Clerk exam is calculated keeping the following points in mind:
• Marks obtained in the Preliminary Exam (Phase-1) will not be considered for final selection.
• Candidates must qualify Phase 2 to be eligible for final merit.
• The aggregate score out of 100 is used for the final merit list for each category. Candidates with top merit rank in each category are finally selected.


Sbi clerk

SBI Clerk Syllabus is essential for aspirants seeking careers in the State Bank of India as Clerks. It is exceedingly important for the applicants to be conversant with the clerk syllabus before kick-starting their preparations. To outrank the competitors, it is essential to check the topics carrying the maximum weightage and devise a strategy accordingly. The SBI Clerk syllabus is divided into two sections, Prelims and Mains. The candidates can refer to the SBI Clerk Syllabus to begin their preparation. SBI Clerk Prelims Syllabus consists of English Language, Reasoning Ability, and Numerical Ability. The Prelims exam accounts for 100 questions to be solved in 60 minutes.


English Language– Cloze Test, Reading Comprehension, Spotting Errors, Sentence Improvement, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Fill in the Blanks, Para/Sentence Completion

Quantative Aptitude– Number Series, Data Interpretation, Simplification/ Approximation, Quadratic Equation, Data Sufficiency, Mensuration, Average, Profit and Loss, Ratio and Proportion, Work, Time, and Energy, Time and Distance, Probability, Relations, Simple and Compound Interest, Permutation and Combination

Reasoning Ability- Seating Arrangements, Puzzles, Inequalities, Syllogism, Input-Output, Data Sufficiency, Blood Relations, Order and Ranking, Alphanumeric Series, Distance and Direction, Verbal Reasoning


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The Mains Examination of SBI Clerk exam constitute 4 sections: Reasoning & Computer Awareness, General English, General/Financial Awareness, and Quantitative Aptitude. The complete syllabus is discussed below:

Reasoning Ability– Sitting Arrangements, Tabulation, Logical Reasoning, Syllogism, Input-Output, Coding-Decoding, Alphanumeric Series, Blood Relations, Ranking, Data Sufficiency, Distance & Direction, Coded Inequalities, and Verbal Reasoning.

Data Analysis & interpretation– Simplification & Approximation, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency, Number Series, Ratio & Proportion, Quadratic Equations, Averages, Boats & Streams, Simple Interest & Compound Interest, Percentage, Profit & Loss, Mixtures & Alligation, Permutation & Combination, Time & Distance, Probability, Partnership, Pipes & Cistern.

English Language– Reading Comprehension, Cloze Test, Double Fillers, Error Spotting, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Paragraph Completion, Para Summary, Sentence Connector, and Vocabulary.

General Awareness– This section compiles three different sub-sections which are current affairs, banking & financial affairs, and static awareness. It includes topics such as important bank news, economic affairs, national and international news, recent state affairs, agreements, visits, awards and honors, summits & conferences, and obituaries.


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IBPS PO Syallabus & Exam Pattern 2023: Prelims, Mains & Interview

Ibps po

IBPS PO syllabus 2023 is paramount for candidates pursuing their career in the Institute of Banking Personnel Selection. IBPS PO Recruitment is conducted in three stages- Prelims, Mains, and Interview. The candidate have to qualify in each stage to get shortlisted for the vacancies. To ace IBPS PO Exam, it is necessary to know the Exam pattern and detailed syllabus of this exam.


English Language- Cloze Test, Reading Comprehension, Spotting Errors, Sentence Improvement, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Fill in the Blanks, Para/Sentence Completion

Quantative Aptitude- Number Series, Data Interpretation, Simplification/ Approximation, Quadratic Equation, Data Sufficiency, Mensuration, Average, Profit and Loss, Ratio and Proportion, Work, Time, and Energy, Time and Distance, Probability, Relations, Simple and Compound Interest, Permutation and Combination

Reasoning Ability- Seating Arrangements, Puzzles, Inequalities, Syllogism, Input-Output, Data Sufficiency, Blood Relations, Order and Ranking, Alphanumeric Series, Distance and Direction, Verbal Reasoning


The IBPS PO preliminary examination will be conducted online and candidates are allocated a total duration of 1 hour to complete the preliminary exam. It consists of 3 sections with a total of 100 questions and a maximum score of 100 marks. There is negative marking in IBPS PO preliminary exam and 0.25 marks are deducted for each wrong answer attempted by a candidate. It is necessary to clear the cut-off in all 3 sections to qualify for the IBPS PO Main exam.

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The candidates who get qualified in the Prelims exam advance to the Mains exam. The official notification for the IBPS PO recruitment 2023 will be released soon, and it’s time to prepare now. The major subjects covered in the IBPS PO Syllabus 2023 are as follows:

Reasoning Ability and Computer Aptitude
Data Analysis and Interpretation
General Awareness

Reasoning Ability- Sitting Arrangements, Tabulation, Logical Reasoning, Syllogism, Input-Output, Coding-Decoding, Alphanumeric Series, Blood Relations, Ranking, Data Sufficiency, Distance & Direction, Coded Inequalities, and Verbal Reasoning.

Data Analysis & interpretation- Simplification & Approximation, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency, Number Series, Ratio & Proportion, Quadratic Equations, Averages, Boats & Streams, Simple Interest & Compound Interest, Percentage, Profit & Loss, Mixtures & Alligation, Permutation & Combination, Time & Distance, Probability, Partnership, Pipes & Cistern.

English Language- Reading Comprehension, Cloze Test, Double Fillers, Error Spotting, Sentence Correction, Para Jumbles, Paragraph Completion, Para Summary, Sentence Connector, and Vocabulary.

General Awareness- This section compiles three different sub-sections which are current affairs, banking & financial affairs, and static awareness. It includes topics such as important bank news, economic affairs, national and international news, recent state affairs, agreements, visits, awards and honors, summits & conferences, and obituaries.

IBPS PO Mains Exam Pattern

• Introduction of Descriptive Paper- Just like SBI PO Exam, IBPS introduced a Descriptive Paper in its Mains Examination where candidates will be judged on their written skills. An essay and a letter will be given to candidates to write that will constitute of 25 marks and that has to be completed in a time span of 30 minutes.

• The overall time allotted for each section has also been changed.

• No separate paper will be conducted for Computer Applications. Reasoning is teamed up with Computer Aptitude section and this entire section will contain 45 questions of a total of 60 marks.

• There will be penalty of 0.25 marks for wrong answers marked in the Objective Tests.

• The overall time allotted for IBPS PO 2023 Mains Objective Exam has also been changed from 140 minutes to 180 minutes plus 30 minutes for the descriptive test. In total, the time for IBPS PO Mains is 3 hours 30 minutes.

• The tests of Reasoning Ability & Computer Aptitude, English Language and Data Analysis & Interpretation are divided into two parts: Section A and Section B. All questions in both sections (A & B) are compulsory. Some questions will be of 2 marks and some questions will be of 1 mark.

Objective Table

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Descriptive Table

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IBPS PO Interview Process

Candidates who qualify for the Mains Exam are finally called for the Interview Process by IBPS. The Interview Process will constitute of 100 marks and the minimum marks for qualifying this round will be 40% which is reduced to 35% for candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC/PWD categories.

Final Selection

The final selection of the candidate for the post of Probationary Officer will be made by taking into consideration the cumulative score of Mains Exam and the interview process. The weightage of both these phases of examination will be in the ratio 80:20 respectively. A merit list will be generated after the Interview Process of the IBPS PO 2023 Exam has been conducted. Candidates who make it to the list will be thus offered the joining letter by the Bank of their choice.

Latest Top 200 Idioms with Meanings and Examples


Top 200 idioms with meanings and examples

  1. Shoot from the hip
    Meaning: To speak bluntly or rashly without thinking carefully
    Example: Don’t feel bad about what he said. He has a habit of shooting from the hip, but he means no harm
  2. Shoot oneself in the foot
    Meaning: To harm one’s own cause inadvertently
    Example: Foolishly harm one’s own cause, as in He really shot himself in the foot, telling the interviewer all about the others who were applying for the job he wanted.
  3. In cold blood
    Meaning: If you do something violent and cruel in cold blood, you do it deliberately and in an unemotional way.
    Example: In a purposely ruthless and unfeeling manner, as in The whole family was murdered in cold blood.
  4. Draw first blood
    Meaning: If you draw first blood, you cause the first damage to an opponent in a conflict or contest.
    Example: To be the first to gain an advantage or score against an opponent. I drew first blood in the tournament and quickly dispatched my opponent.
  5. Ace up one’s sleeve
    Meaning: A secret or hidden advantage that you can use when you need it
    Example: Cheating at a card game by hiding a favourable card up one’s sleeve. I have an ace up my sleeve for this race- my stamina.
  6. A left-handed compliment
    Meaning: Saying something insulting in the form of appreciative words.
    Example: Her words on my blog seem like a left-handed compliment.
  7. Play your cards right
    Meaning: To behave or work in a way that gives you an advantage or improves your odds of success.
    Example: Play your cards right in college and you’ll get a great job after you graduate
  8. Egg on your face
    Meaning: If you’ve egg on your face, you look stupid and face embarrassment because of something you’ve done.
    Example: Terry had an egg on his face after boasting that the examinations were really easy, but ended up failing most of his papers.
  9. Kill the goose that lays the golden eggs
    Meaning: To destroy something that gives you a lot of money to get immediate returns
    Example: Tearing down the top attraction in the theme park, “The Haunted House”, would be akin to killing the goose that lays the golden egg.
  10. An arm and a leg
    Meaning: If something costs an arm and a leg, it costs a lot.
    Example: I want to buy a house by the beach, but it may cost me an arm and a leg.
  11. Behind one’s back
    Meaning: If you do something behind someone’s back, you do it secretly without their knowledge (used in negative way).
    Example: My colleague is really nice to me but I don’t trust him because I know he talks negatively about me behind my back.
  12. Stab someone in the back
    Meaning: Harm someone who trusts you.
    Example: Don’t trust George; he’s been known to stab his friends in the back
  13. Take a back seat
    Meaning: If you take a back seat, you choose not to be in a position of responsibility or power.
    Example: The founder of the company decided to take a back seat and let the board members run the business.
  14. Back to the drawing board
    Meaning: If you go back to the drawing board, you make a fresh start or try another idea because the earlier one didn’t succeed.
    Example: It looks like my plans to kill the weeds in the garden failed. Back to the drawing board
  15. Right off the bat
    Meaning: If you do something right off the bat, you do it immediately.
    Example: Nathan was in the mood for a cheeseburger, so he hopped into his car and bought some fast food. After unwrapping the burger, he took a bite and right off the bat he knew that something was wrong; it didn’t taste right.
  16. Heart misses (skips) a beat
    Meaning: If your heart misses a beat, you feel excited or nervous.
    Example: Her heart missed a beat when she heard her name called out in the list of finalists, or When the bear appeared in front of us, my heart skipped a beat, or My heart stands still at the very thought of flying through a thunderstorm
  17. Have your heart in your mouth
    Meaning: If you’ve your heart in mouth, you’re feeling extremely nervous.
    Example: You sure don’t seem relaxed—in fact, it seems like your heart is in your mouth.
  18. Not the only fish in the sea
    Meaning: Not the only suitable thing or person one can find
    Example: When Bob walked out on Sally, all we could tell her was that he was not the only fish in the sea , or Bill knew she wasn’t the only pebble on the beach but he was determined to win her over.
  19. Not your cup of tea
    Meaning: If you say that someone or something is not your cup of tea, you mean that they’re not the kind of person or thing you like.
    Example: We couldn’t decide which movie to watch, so we ended up settling on a comedy. Half-way through the movie, I concluded that its humor was not my cup of tea.
  20. A piece of cake
    Meaning: If something is a piece of cake, it’s easy to do.
    Example: The boy found the project to be a piece of cake because it was incredibly easy.
  21. Call it a day
    Meaning: If you call it a day, you stop what you’re doing because you’re tired of it or you’ve not been successful.
    Example: I think we have done enough work today, I am feeling tired now, let’s call it a day.
  22. A bird in the hand is better than two in the bush
    Meaning: An opportunity in hand, currently, is better than a prospect in the future, because time never repeats itself.
    Example: The detective apprehended 3 criminals and saw another one running but didn’t chase him, because she knew a bird in one hand is better than two in the bush.
  23. Chip off the old block
    Meaning: A person is similar in behaviour or actions to his parents.
    Example: When grandmother saw her grandson collecting coins like her son used to do, she knew he was a Chip off the old block.
  24. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
    Meaning: Treat people the same way you want to be treated.
    Example: I felt Peter was a little cold today towards that homeless man, he should do unto others as he would have them do unto him, because who knows about time.
  25. Don’t cry over spilt milk
    Meaning: Don’t cry over what has happened as it can not be fixed.
    Example: Walter failed his examination but his dad came and said just one thing, “Son, Don’t cry over spilt milk.”
  26. Every cloud has a silver lining
    Meaning: Bad things one day eventually lead to good things.
    Example: See, yesterday you were so morose as your phone was stolen but look at you today, you got a promotion. Is it rightly said that every cloud has a silver lining.
  27. Beside yourself with joy
    Meaning: To be extremely happy.
    Example: I can see that you are beside yourself with joy on being selected for the job, congratulations.
  28. Fair and square
    Meaning: Being direct or fair.
    Example: To tell you fair and square, I did everything that I was meant to do, but I still feel unfulfilled.
  29. Having an Ace up the sleeve
    Meaning: Have an advantage that is currently being withheld for future purposes.
    Example: Brian kept quiet at the board meeting, who knew he had an Ace hidden up his sleeve the whole time.
  30. A black sheep
    Meaning: Being a disgrace for the family.
    Example: They don’t talk about Olive anymore, turns out he was the Black sheep for the family, he married someone else while he was still arranged to his fiancé.
  31. Hook, line and sinker
    Meaning: Doing something or trying to achieve something with thoroughness and passion.
    Example: I have set my mind to go through the spreadsheets by Monday and I am working for it Hook, line and sinker.
  32. Looking to your laurels
    Meaning: Not be lost in your achievements and losing the sight of what is supposed to happen.
    Example: Look to your laurels but do not rest on it.
  33. Bear a grudge
    Meaning: To continue to feel angry or unfriendly for someone or something because of a particular past incident.
    Example: I Bear a grudge against him for not taking me into confidence.
  34. By the skin of your teeth
    Meaning: To just barely get by or make it.
    Example: Lester made the dance team By the skin of his teeth, you see the audition gates were about to get closed.
  35. Down for the count
    Meaning: Tired; giving up.
    Example: My pet dog is down for the count after playing the whole day with the frisbee.
  36. Draw the line
    Meaning: To stop before a point where something okay gets not okay.
    Example: Hey buddy, that’s enough, Draw the line before someone comes and beats you to a pulp.
  37. Easier said than done
    Meaning: Not as easy as it appears to be.
    Example: Listen, losing weight is easier said than done, many people lack commitment.
  38. Break a leg
    Meaning: Saying good luck to someone.
    Example: Hey Barry, it’s time for you to get on the stage and present your monologue, break a leg.
  39. Up a creek without a paddle
    Meaning: In an unlucky situation.
    Example: Dan tried to dine and dash yesterday at a Chinese place but he was stopped by the waiters, guess he was up a creek without a paddle yesterday.
  40. Give it a whirl
    Meaning: To give something a try.
    Example: I am absolutely terrified of skydiving, but I think once in my life, I will give it a whirl.
  41. Fish out of water
    Meaning: To be out of your comfort zone.
    Example: Tom felt like a fish out of water when his girlfriend took him to a Star Wars convention in LA.
  42. In the fast lane
    Meaning: A life filled with excitement.
    Example: When Chris turned forty, he decided to live his life in the fast lane and quit his job for his hobbies.
  43. Go the extra mile
    Meaning: To make an extra effort.
    Example: He was willing to go the extra mile for the love of his life, Mia.
  44. Snug as a bug in a rug
    Meaning: Warm and cosy.
    Meaning: The baby looks as snug as a bug in a rug next to her mother.
  45. Step up your game
    Meaning: To start performing better
    Example: Jennifer better step up her game if she wants to make big in Basketball.
  46. To not see the wood for the trees
    Meaning: To be so involved in trivial matters that you don’t get the important facts.
    Example: He always argues on the silliest topics, it’s like he can’t see wood for the trees.
  47. Lose your marbles
    Meaning: To go insane.
    Example: Our mailman has lost his marbles, every day he drops Mr. Smith’s mail on our door.
  48. Straight from the Horse’s mouth
    Meaning: Directly from the person involved.
    Example: Listen to the news straight from the horse’s mouth, his factory burned down right in front of his eyes.
  49. Crying Wolf
    Meaning: To ask for help when you don’t need it.
    Example: You have cried Wolf so many times that no one believes you now.
  50. Palm off
    Meaning: Pass off something as genuine when it is spurious.
    Example: This shopkeeper always palms off old stock to the customers.
  51. Has bigger fish to fry
    Meaning: Has more important work to do.
    Example: Please don’t bother me today with any calls, I have bigger fish to fry.
  52. Look before you leap
    Meaning: Calculate the risks before advancing towards a possibility.
    Example: You can’t just sell all of your shares when the market is low, look before you leap, Trump is coming tomorrow, it is possible the shares will grow.
  53. On thin ice
    Meaning: In a precarious or risky situation.
    Example: Andy played hooky from work for a week saying he was sick, now his boss said that he is on very thin ice.
  54. Play devil’s advocate
    Meaning: To argue, just for the sake of it.
    Example: He was not agreeing to back off, as if he was playing devil’s advocate.
  55. Rain on someone’s parade
    Meaning: To spoil a moment.
    Example: He told his wife that he doesn’t want to rain on her parade, but they had to shift their vacation dates.
  56. Take a rain check
    Meaning: Postpone a plan.
    Example: He asked me whether I would like to have dinner with his family, but I had a thing so I said, rain check.
  57. Take it with a grain of salt
    Meaning: Don’t take it too seriously.
    Example: She tells great tales but we take whatever she says with a grain of salt.
  58. Like a cakewalk
    Meaning: So easy task.
    Example: Everyone took hours to write the code but Adam did it like a cakewalk.
  59. Throw caution to the wind
    Meaning: Take a risk.
    Example: The caretaker threw caution to the wind by taking a sick baby outside.
  60. Penny-wise and Pound foolish
    Meaning: Careful in trivial matters but wasteful or extravagant in large matters.
    Example: That man eats Ramen noodles daily for dinner but for his dog, he threw a big party. He is indeed penny-wise and pound-foolish.
  61. The whole nine yards
    Meaning: Everything, all the way.
    Example: I want to know everything there is to know about this merger, the whole nine yards of the deal.
  62. The best thing since sliced bread
    Meaning: A really good invention.
    Example: Bluetooth is officially the best thing since sliced bread.
  63. Bite off more than you can chew
    Meaning: Take on a difficult work that is beyond your capabilities.
    Example: Andrew told his boss that he will triple the sales but in reality, he bit off more than he can chew and now all of us are in trouble.
  64. Play by the ear
    Meaning: To improvise.
    Example: I just went to Canada and did everything by the ear, no itinerary, no schedules.
  65. Ignorance is bliss
    Meaning: You are better off not knowing some things.
    Example: His wife always asked him what it was he did late at night, turned out, he was insider trading. But she knew nothing about this so she won’t be convicted, sometimes ignorance is bliss.
  66. Put something on ice
    Meaning: To put something on hold.
    Example: As per the boss’ order, Michael has put his personal matters on ice.
  67. You can say that again
    Meaning: That’s absolutely true.
    Example: “The Earth is bleeding”, you can say that again, pal.
  68. Bite the bullet
    Meaning: To get something over with because it is inevitable.
    Example: Vik was diagnosed with second stage cancer but he didn’t want to get chemotherapy. By the will of his wife, he bit the bullet.
  69. Go back to the drawing board
    Meaning: Start over.
    Example: It is not too late to go back to the drawing board and assess your mistakes.
  70. Call it a day
    Meaning: Stop working on something.
    Example: Ah! So what we didn’t complete the puzzle today, let’s call it a day and come back again tomorrow.
  71. Beating Around the Bush
    Meaning: To talk about unnecessary things.
    Example: When I asked my secretary about the missing file and documents, she was beating around the bush.
  72. Be in a Tight Corner.
    Meaning: Being in a difficult situation.
    Example: Radha’s low grades despite her constant efforts has put her in a very tight corner.
  73. At the 11th Hour
    Meaning: At the last moment.
    Example: While leaving for Shimla, Harshit kept his mobile phone charger in the bag at the 11th hour.
  74. Swan Song
    Meaning: The last piece of work of an artist before his/her death.
    Example: This painting was M.F Hussain’s swan song.
  75. Wild Goose Chase
    Meaning: Futile Chase
    Example: Catching the two thieves together on a jam-packed road was no less than a wild goose chase for the policeman.
  76. Bury the Hatchet
    Meaning: Ending a quarrel to make peace.
    Example: My father buried the hatchet by equally diving the pasta between me and my sister.
  77. To Bell the Cat
    Meaning: To face a risk.
    Example: He belled the cat when he was trying to escape the prison.
  78. Turn a deaf ear
    Meaning: To ignore what someone is saying.
    Example: Whenever her mother complained of her excessive use of mobile phone, Anu turned a deaf ear.
  79. At Sea
    Meaning: Confused
    Example: I was at sea while choosing a lehenga for my sister’s wedding at Manish Malhotra’s store.
  80. To be in the doldrums
    Meaning: To be in a low spirit
    Example: When I got to know about the increasing cases of COVID 19 in my area, I was in the doldrums.
  81. Hit the books
    Meaning: Going to study
    Example: I won’t be able to come for dinner as I have to hit the books for my half-yearly examinations.
  82. Twist someone’s arm
    Meaning: To convince someone
    Example: I was not planning to come to the party but by remaining me of all the good food you twisted my arm!
  83. Stab someone in the back
    Meaning: To betray a close person
    Example: My uncle trusted his driver so much but he stabbed him at the back when he saw all the money bags.
  84. Go cold turkey
    Meaning: To quit or stop addictive or dangerous behaviour
    Example: No one could believe that my father left eating sweets! He went cold turkey when the doctors told him that he has diabetes.
  85. Ring a bell
    Meaning: Sounds familiar
    Example: Why does this name ring a bell in my head? Was this girl in my school?
  86. Cut to the chase
    Meaning: Getting to the important point
    Example: As the submissions were to be made tonight, boss cut to the chase and asked us to start working.
  87. Blow off steam
    Meaning: Experiencing strong feelings like anger or stress
    Example: Shina went running to blow off steam as she had a huge fight with mother.
  88. Face the music
    Meaning: Face the reality
    Example: Shikha asked her husband to not run away from the problem and just face the music once!
  89. To have sticky fingers
    Meaning: Thief
    Example: The cashier had a sticky finger, he stole around $2000 and ran away from the bank.
  90. Break the bank
    Meaning: To be very expensive
    Example: I had to break the bank to but these shoes!
  91. Face the music
    Meaning: Confront the unpleasant consequences of one’s actions.
    Example: We have done it and now it’s time to face the music!
  92. It is always darkest before the dawn
    Meaning: Things will get better
    Example: I know you have gone through the worst, but remember it is always darkest before the dawn.
  93. Jump the gun
    Meaning: To act on something promptly before the right time
    Example: I think I jumped the gun by sending the e-mail before they tell the time.
  94. Wear your heart on your sleeve
    Meaning: Expressing yourself too openly
    Example: She wears her heart on her sleeve and often gets hurt.
  95. Cut no ice
    Meaning: Fail to make an impact
    Example: Your poetry cuts no ice with me.
  96. Light at the end of tunnel
    Meaning: Seeing signs of improvement in the future
    Example: I see the light at the end of the tunnel for my relationship with her.
  97. Through thick and thin
    Meaning: Through good and bad times
    Example: Books and music stay by your side through thick and thin.
  98. Cry for the moon
    Meaning: To ask for something that is rather difficult
    Example: You are crying for the moon for this concert’s tickets!
  99. Read between the lines
    Meaning: Understanding the real message behind something
    Example: If you try to read between the lines, her song is actually about nizagara.
  100. Break the ice
    Meaning: To get the conversation going. Provide a conversation prompt.
    Example: Starting class with a joke or subjects students like will help to break the ice.
  101. A dime a dozen
    Meaning: Very common: quite ordinary
    Example: I thought it was something special but it turns out they’re a dime a dozen.
  102. Beat around the bush
    Meaning: To avoid saying something
    Example: Don’t beat around the bush. Just tell me what happened.
  103. Back against the wall
    Meaning: Forced to do something that you would rather not.
    Example: I really don’t want to do this but my back is against the wall.
  104. Bite the bullet
    Meaning: Doing something you don’t want to but also expressing that you’re making a proactive choice.
    Example: I’m going to go ahead and bite the bullet rather than waiting around.
  105. Wrap one’s head around something
    Meaning: To understand something that may take a bit of time and effort.
    Example: That’s really complicated. It’s going to take a moment to wrap my head around that.
  106. Under the weather
    Meaning: Sick. Typically used to describe minor illnesses like a cold.
    Example: Sorry I’m feeling a bit under the weather and won’t be able to come in today.
  107. Better late than never
    Meaning: Describes things that are better done than not, even if it takes a long time.
    Example: I went back to college at 30 years old and figured better late than never.
  108. Cut corners
    Meaning: To skip steps or not do things completely.
    Example: This is an important project so don’t cut any corners on this one.
  109. Get out of hand
    Meaning: When a situation gets out of control.
    Example: I meant to just have a small party but too many people came and it quickly got out of hand.
  110. A snowball effect
    Meaning: Something that can continue to get more and more out of control
    Example: I just invited a couple of people over but there was a bit of a snowball effect and now there’s a giant party at my house.
  111. We’ll cross that bridge when we get to it
    Meaning: Let’s avoid addressing the problem until later on.
    Example: We won’t find out until next month so we’ll cross that bridge when we get there.
  112. To cut someone some slack
    Meaning: To not manage someone very strictly or to not be critical.
    Example: Cut me some slack. I’m trying.
  113. To be hard on someone
    Meaning: To criticize or to manage someone very strictly.
    Example: You don’t have to be so hard on your employees to be successful.
  114. Get something out of one’s system
    Meaning: To do something you really want to and have been waiting to.
    Example: I really want to go to karaoke, sing a few songs and just get it out of my system.
  115. Burn bridges
    Meaning: To do something or anger someone to where you cannot go back to how things were and cannot expect help in the future.
    Example: Don’t burn bridges with your employer. You may need their help in the future.
  116. Sell like hotcakes
    Meaning: To sell very quickly or be in high demand.
    Example: I didn’t think my crafts would be that popular but they’re selling like hotcakes.
  117. Fish out of water
    Meaning: To be in an unfamiliar or uncomfortable place.
    Example: I don’t want to change schools and be a fish out of water.
  118. Step up one’s game
    Meaning: To work harder or perform better.
    Example: You need to step up your game if you want a promotion this year.
  119. Your guess is as good as mine
    Meaning: I don’t know either.
    Example: I haven’t found out anything so your guess is as good as mine.
  120. Leave out in the cold
    Meaning: To be ignored or not considered.
    Example: Not being invited to any of the meetings lately has me feeling left out in the cold.
  121. Keep an ear to the ground
    Meaning: To listen for new information.
    Example: I’ll keep an ear to the ground for any updates on the project.
  122. Up in arms
    Meaning: To be angry or overreact.
    Example: Don’t get up in arms. I’m just telling you what happened.
  123. Run around in circles
    Meaning: To put effort into something while making little or no progress.
    Example: My boss has me running around in circles with unnecessary tasks that aren’t getting us anywhere.
  124. Scrape the barrel
    Meaning: To make choices you don’t want to or normally wouldn’t.
    Example: They’re not great but I was really scraping the barrel to find something.
  125. Blessing in disguise
    Meaning: Something that seems bad but provides some benefit.
    Example: I hated that assignment but it was a blessing in disguise since it taught me things that I use for the job I have now.
  126. Having an Ace up the sleeve
    Meaning: To have a hidden or untold advantage.
    Example: I thought he was definitely going to lose but he had an ace up his sleeve and caught up in points.
  127. Buy it
    Meaning: To believe something.
    Example: That guy told me he’s related to the president but I don’t buy it.
  128. Hook line and sinker
    Meaning: To be deceived completely.
    Example: I told him that I would pay him $1,000 and he bought it hook line and sinker.
  129. Piece of cake
    Meaning: Very Easy.
    Example: Winning the game is a piece of cake once you understand how to play.
  130. Once in a blue moon
    Meaning: Very rare.
    Example: She doesn’t like it here and only comes once in a blue moon.
  131. On the line
    Meaning: To risk something or have something at risk.
    Example: I invested my life savings in this business and have everything on the line.
  132. A quick buck
    Meaning: An easy way to make money quickly.
    Example: Translation work is kind of boring for me but it’s a quick buck.
  133. Sights set on | Set sights on
    Meaning: To desire something or to make a goal.
    Example: I have my sights set on going to France next year. I set my sights on going to France next year.
  134. Add fuel to the fire
    Meaning: To make a situation worse.
    Example: You should wait until later to say something. Sometimes arguing just adds fuel to the fire.
  135. Bone to pick
    Meaning: To be angry about something and want to discuss it.
    Example: You might not think you did anything wrong but I have a bone to pick with you about that.
  136. Go the extra mile
    Meaning: To do extra work or put in extra effort.
    Example: She went the extra mile and got our seats upgraded even though she didn’t have to.
  137. Hang in there
    Meaning: To not give up.
    Example: I know things are hard but hang in there.
  138. Down for the count
    Meaning: To give up or not be able to keep going.
    Example: I tried everything and it took so much out of me. I’m down for the count on this one.
  139. Rest on your laurels
    Meaning: To stop trying as hard because of your past achievements.
    Example: The work still isn’t finished and things are just going to get more difficult. This is no time to rest on your laurels.
  140. Give it a whirl
    Meaning: To try something.
    Example: I’m willing to give it a whirl even though I’ve never done it before.
  141. It’s not rocket science
    Meaning: It’s not as difficult as you might think.
    Example: Of course, I figured it out. It’s not rocket science.
  142. Get bent out of shape
    Meaning: To get upset at times when others don’t think you should.
    Example: Hey it’s just a joke. Don’t get bent out of shape.
  143. Spill the beans
    Meaning: To tell a secret.
    Example: I already know you did it. Your best friend spilled the beans.
  144. Sit on the fence
    Meaning: To be undecided.
    Example: I’m still sitting on the fence about whether I’m going to buy that car.
  145. Don’t cry over spilled milk / No use in crying over spilled milk
    Meaning: What has already happened cannot be undone so you shouldn’t cry but you should think of what to do going forward.
    Example: I know it wasn’t your fault but there’s no use in crying over spilled milk. Think of what you’re going to do next.
  146. Fair and square
    Meaning: To do things in a fair way with no advantages given to either side.
    Example: No do-overs. I won fair and square.
  147. Straight from the horse’s mouth
    Meaning: To hear information directly from the person involved.
    Example: I already know the truth. I heard straight from the horse’s mouth.
  148. Bigger fish to fry
    Meaning: There is something more important to take care of.
    Example: I can’t think about that right now. I have bigger fish to fry.
  149. At face value
    Meaning: As something seems or as one claims it to be.
    Example: Don’t take what he says at face value. He’s been known to lie.
  150. Read between the lines
    Meaning: To look for the real meaning when something is said.
    Example: I don’t just listen to what people tell me. I know how to read between the lines.
  151. Wild goose chase
    Meaning: To waste time trying to do something you cannot.
    Example: My mom sent me on a wild goose chase trying to find things that aren’t available anywhere.
  152. Call it a day
    Meaning: To stop working.
    Example: Hey let’s go home. It’s time to call it a day.
  153. Chip off the old block
    Meaning: To be similar to one’s parents in one way or overall.
    Example: She’s a really higher achiever like her mom. A real chip off the old block.
  154. The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.
    Meaning: Similar to one’s parents. This is used at the time when you observe that someone is doing something their parents would.
    Example: Of course, he got into Harvard. The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.
  155. In for a penny in for a pound
    Meaning: To make sure a task is complete no matter what once someone has spent any effort or money towards the goal.
    Example: I’m in for a penny in for a pound on this one. I’ve already spent seven hours getting this project off the ground.
  156. By the skin of one’s teeth
    Meaning: To barely get something done.
    Example: I passed that test by the skin of my teeth with a 61/100.
  157. Draw the line
    Meaning: To decide on a stopping past which you will not let something continue.
    Example: I’m going to have to draw the line here. I can’t do any more work until you pay your balance.
  158. To not see/to lose the forest for the trees
    Meaning: To fixate on trivial details to the point of ignoring the overall meaning or more important facts.
    Example: Don’t lose the forest for the trees here. The first few questions are only worth one point each so make sure you leave enough time for the open-ended questions.
  159. Penny wise and pound foolish
    Meaning: To worry about or obsess over unimportant details while ignoring the important ones.
    Example: He did every homework assignment but didn’t submit his major project. Absolutely penny wise and pound foolish.
  160. Cry wolf
    Meaning: To ask for help or attention by lying about a situation.
    Example: If you keep crying wolf, nobody is going to help you when you really need it.
  161. Play devil’s advocate
    Meaning: To present the other side or both sides of an argument.
    Example: I just need you to support me, not to keep trying to play devil’s advocate.
  162. On thin ice
    Meaning: In a dangerous or risky situation with much margin for error.
    Example: I used 9 out of my 10 absences so my teacher told me I’m on thin ice.
  163. The best thing since sliced bread
    Meaning: Really, really good.
    Example: The iPhone was the best thing since sliced bread. It really changed the world.
  164. Take it with a pinch of salt
    Meaning: Don’t believe it to be 100% true.
    Example: He lies a lot so take what he says with a pinch of salt.
  165. The whole nine yards
    Meaning: Everything to the greatest extent.
    Example: I want everything on the menu. Appetizers, entrees, desserts, the whole nine yards.
  166. Bite off more than you can chew
    Meaning: To take on a task that is more difficult than you can handle.
    Example: I regret agreeing to cook dinner for 100 people. I really bit off more than I could chew.
  167. A second wind
    Meaning: To have more energy or more appetite after being tired or full.
    Example: I was completely full but once the dessert came, I had a second wind.
  168. Play it by ear
    Meaning: To improvise or wait for more information to come to a decision.
    Example: I can’t decide on what to do until I know what my manager’s decision will be so I have to play it by ear.
  169. Put something on ice
    Meaning: To stop progress on something or put it on hold.
    Example: Hey I need you to work on this project that’s due today so you’re going to have to put what you’re doing on ice.
  170. 24/7
    Meaning: All the time, always. (24 hours a day, 7 days a week)
    Example: I didn’t invite him to my party because he’s in medical school and studying 24/7.
  171. Lose one’s touch
    Meaning: To not be as good at something as one used to be.
    Example: It took me 10 tries to get a basket. I’m really losing my touch.
  172. Sit tight
    Meaning: Please wait patiently.
    Example: Hey I still have a few tasks to do before I can head out to dinner so sit tight and I’ll be there soon.
  173. Twist my arm
    Meaning: To convince someone with persistence.
    Example: Alright I wasn’t planning on buying a new car today but you twisted my arm. I’ll take it.
  174. Turn a deaf ear
    Meaning: To ignore someone.
    Example: I could really use some help but everyone around me has turned a deaf ear.
  175. Hit the books
    Meaning: To study (more often used to imply studying hard)
    Example: Final exams are coming up and I need a high score to maintain my A. I’m going to hit the books hard today.
  176. Cold turkey
    Meaning: To quit suddenly rather than gradually.
    Example: If I start playing video games at all, I won’t stop for hours so I had to quit cold turkey.
  177. Go down in flames
    Meaning: To fail suddenly and severely.
    Example: A couple of scandals after her debut caused her career to go down in flames.
  178. Pitch in
    Meaning: To put in effort or to make a contribution.
    Example: It’s a lot of work but if everyone pitches in, we’ll be done in no time.
  179. Cut to the chase
    Meaning: To get directly to the point.
    Example: I’m in a rush so I need you to cut to the chase and just tell me what the problem is.
  180. Off the table
    Meaning: Unavailable, the offer has been revoked.
    Example: If your offer is still on the table, I’d like to accept the job.
  181. Ship has sailed
    Meaning: It is too late for the opportunity. You waited too long for the opportunity and it is no longer available.
    Example: You waited too long and the job isn’t available anymore. That ship has sailed so keep looking.
  182. Blow off steam
    Meaning: To do fun activities to help relieve stress.
    Example: I had a long day at work and went to the batting cages to blow off some steam.
  183. Come rain or shine
    Meaning: No matter what.
    Example: I promise, come rain or shine, I’ll be at your graduation. You can count on it.
  184. See eye to eye
    Meaning: To agree, compromise or understand the other person’s perspective.
    Example: It’s been six weeks and they can’t come to any agreement because they just can’t see eye to eye.
  185. Rings a bell
    Meaning: Sounds familiar or reminds you of something.
    Example: What you just said rings a bell. There’s this thing I forgot to tell you earlier.
  186. A class act
    Meaning: Of great character or able to perform to high standards.
    Example: He puts on a good show every time and then shakes hands and takes pictures with fans. He’s a real class act.
  187. Break the bank
    Meaning: To be very expensive.
    Example: I got the car I wanted but it really broke the bank.
  188. Cost an arm and a leg
    Meaning: To be very expensive. (Typically less used for items less expensive than ones that you would use “break the bank” for).
    Example: Replacing my broken car stereo cost me an arm and leg.
  189. Face the music
    Meaning: To accept reality.
    Example: You failed every audition. It’s time to face the music and accept that you’re not a very good actor.
  190. Darkest before the dawn
    Meaning: Things will get better (Useful for when several bad things happen at once)
    Example: I know that a lot of bad things happened to you this week but it’s darkest before the dawn.
  191. Through thick and thin
    Meaning: Throughout good times and bad times.
    Example: It doesn’t matter if it’s difficult or if bad things happen. I said I would help you through thick and thin.
  192. Fortune favors the bold
    Meaning: Taking a risk can pay off.
    Example: There’s only a 10% chance of success but the payout is 20 times higher if I win. You know what they say, fortune favors the bold.
  193. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket
    Meaning: You’re taking too big of a risk or putting too much effort and resources into one risky option.
    Example: I’m really glad that people like my art but I’m not going to make art full time. I don’t want to put all my eggs in one basket.
  194. Throw caution to the wind
    Meaning: To stop thinking about something and take the risk.
    Example: My parents told me not to put all my eggs in one basket but I decided to throw caution to the wind and be a full-time artist.
  195. Look before you leap
    Meaning: To think before you do something.
    Example: The opportunity to move to another country is really exciting but I want you to look before you leap.
  196. Jump on the bandwagon
    Meaning: To follow a trend or not to do something until it’s popular.
    Example: She didn’t care about K-pop before but now that it’s popular, she’s jumped on the bandwagon.
  197. Pour one’s heart out
    Meaning: To tell or confess something emotional.
    Example: I don’t like soap operas. They’re so unrealistic with the way everyone pours their heart out about everything.
  198. Right as rain
    Meaning: There is nothing that can be improved.
    Example: The dish was right as rain. I wouldn’t change a thing about it.
  199. Knee Jerk Reaction
    Meaning: A quick response
    Example: The statement was just a knee jerk reaction.
  200. Once bitten, twice shy
    Meaning: Afraid of doing something again
    Example: Once bitten twice shy, he can’t ski.

APJ Abdul Kalam quotes: Best 40 Motivational Quotes for Students

Abdul Kalam quotes

APJ Abdul Kalam was an Indian scientist, author, and politician who served as the 11th President of India from 2002-07. Abdul Kalam was a highly respected figure in India and around the world, and he was known for his inspirational speeches, writings, and quotes. He was an advocate for education, youth empowerment, and technology, and his ideas continue to inspire people to this day. Here, are some famous Abdul Kalam quotes which are widely popular and often cited for their profound meaning and timeless relevance.

APJ Abdul Kalam Quotes:

  1. Dream is not something that you see while sleeping. It is something that does not let you sleep.
  2. Books become permanent companions. Sometimes, they are born before us; they guide us during our life journey and continue for many generations.
  3. One of the very important characteristics of a student is to question. Let the students ask questions.
  4. All Birds find shelter during a rain. But Eagle avoids rain by flying above the Clouds. Problems are common, but attitude makes the difference.
  5. While children are struggling to be unique, the world around them is trying all means to make them look like everybody else.
  6. Don’t fear failing in the first attempt because even the successful maths starts with zero only.
  7. You see, god helps only people who work hard. That Principle is very clear.
  8. If you fail, never give up. Because fail means “First Attempt in Learning”.
  9. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.
  10. The two most important life-goals I would like every youth to have: One, increase the amount of time that you have at your disposal; two, increase what you can achieve in the time available.
  11. When troubles come, try to understand the relevance of your sufferings.
  12. The best brains of the nation may be found on the last benches of the classroom.
  13. All of us do not have equal talent. But, all of us have an equal opportunity to develop our talents.
  14. Excellence happens not by accident. It is a process.
  15. The purpose of education is to make good human beings with skill and expertise… Enlightened human beings can be created by teachers.
  16. Creativity is seeing the same thing but thinking differently.
  17. Small aim is a crime; have great aim.
  18. Educationists should build the capacities of the spirit of inquiry, creativity, entrepreneurial and moral leadership among students and become their role model.
  19. Great scientific minds are shaped early by unforgettable experiences and some miracle moments.”
  20. I realized then that if something is at stake, the human mind gets ignited and working capacity gets enhanced manifold.
  21. You have to have a goal but you have to have strategies to achieve it as fast as possible.
  22. Praise publicly, but criticize privately.
  23. There is no greater power in heaven or on earth than the commitment to a dream.
  24. The key to my motivation has always been to look at how far i had still to go rather than how far I had come.”
  25. We don’t just build on successes, we also build on failures, Abdul Kalam quotes about success
  26. A productive leader must be very competent in staffing.
  27. Each individual creature on this beautiful planet is created by God to fulfill a particular role.
  28. Beautiful hands are those that do Work that is earnest and brave and true Moment by moment the long day through.
  29. Be more dedicated to making solid achievements than in running after swift but synthetic happiness.
  30. Before God trusts you with success, you have to prove yourself humble enough to handle the big prize.
  31. Leaders can create a high productivity level by providing the appropriate organizational structure and job design, and by acknowledging and appreciating hard work.
  32. Anyone who has taken up the responsibility to lead a team can be successful only if he is sufficiently independent, powerful and influential in his own right to become a person to reckon with.
  33. One best book is equal to hundred good friends but one good friend is equal to a library.
  34. Teaching is a very noble profession that shapes the character, caliber, and future of an individual. If the people remember me as a good teacher, that will be the biggest honor for me.
  35. You have to dream before your dreams can come true.
  36. Thinking should become your capital asset, no matter whatever ups and downs you come across in your life.
  37. Let us sacrifice our today so that our children can have a better tomorrow.
  38. Life is a difficult game. You can win it only by retaining your birthright to be a person.
  39. Dream, dream, dream. Dreams transform into thoughts and thoughts result in action.
  40. Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended.